Debian Linux on Lenovo/IBM Thinkpad Z60m
|Last update: October 14th, 2007|
I will try to install Debian 3.1 (Sarge). Pre-installed WinXP will be erased. For some remorks an Etch, check my other document.
Rumors have it that installing Debian is slightly more tricky than Ubuntu or SuSE or whatever. I want to do it anyway.
Important bit of information: yes, it works and even more, almost all hardware seems to be supported, including special Thinkpad stuff (but you need some manual work). However, I am having continuing problems regarding stability and predictability of the bugs, and I cannot really recommend Debian Sarge for this laptop.
Be sure to check ThinkWiki for refrence, I will more or less list distro specific traps and solutions here.
I also installed Etch on a Thinkpad Z60m.
To install Slackware Linux, see this page.
The ACPI daemon sometimes seems to exit (I think when logrotate tries to restart ACPI, it fails).
This is bad since due to a bug in Xorg 6.9, the xserver then grabs and occupies the acpi device and acpid cannot be restarted until X is shut down. So be sure you make the console work after sleeping, which needs extra care! Otherwise shutting down X is no fun. (I read in the X bugzilla that this will be fixed, so I guess Xorg 7.0 is ok).
One effect of the missing acpid is that the sleep button does not work from time to time.
udevd sometimes exits. This is very bad since no hotplugging is possible anymore, including USB devices like memory sticks etc. It seems to be impossible to restart udevd: the init script does not support this nor does it seem to expect that this can ever happen.
The only way I found to fix this is to boot. :-(
(Note: this seems to be fixed after a kernel upgrade to 126.96.36.199, but the newer fglrx driver now crashes after suspend, so if one thing works, the other thing breaks: you decide).
The DVD drive is completely unusable with the standard kernel, since there is no DMA. (Using experimental kernel code for it crashes my machine thoroughly and immediately when trying to access the drive.)
A newer kernel fixes this but since I had to use a newer fglrx, too, the ability to suspend is broken.
FIXED by unloading the usb module before suspending:
The USB subsystem seems to be very unstable. At times, especially when trying to attach usb disks like my photo camera or a memory stick, something in the kernel enters an uninterruptible sleep. All programs trying to acces the USB subsystem (e.g. usbview, modprobe with and usb module, etc.) are then immediately dead and irremovable from memory.
The worst thing about this is that the computer will not sleep anymore nor will it be rebootable: it crashes during a try to reboot entering an infinite loop (I guess it is infinite, I admit I never waited more that 30 minutes).
The only thing to do is to press the power button to force a hard-wired power down. An aweful thing to do. :-((
Just before writing this problem report, usb would fail to recognise USB mouse and keyboard. udevd was still running, the usb connect was detected, but no modules were loaded. I have no idea why not. I inserted usbhid, usbkbd and usbmouse manually, but then, X would not start and switching to console 7 showed a black screen and I could not switch the screen again, so I booted. :-(
If anyone knows how to solve any of these problems, please tell me.
In total, I felt very frustrated about these problems since they were hard to debug: no messages in /var/log/messages indicating a problem, in fact, no error message at all. The unpredictabity was the worst thing of all since I don't know how to track down the problem, since I cannot trigger it predictably.
My old Laptop used to crash during wake up, that was bad, too, but at least it was totally predictable, and thus, understandable. I could then configure it to boot and shutdown quickly, since I knew sleeping would not work. For the new laptop seemingly most hardware and features are supported and are working more or less for some time. But the laptop is unstable. This really is bad and I currently mainly blame the OS for this.
|Working:||keyboard, hard disk, display (in X), dual-head display, 2d accel, 3d accel, ethernet, wlan, touchpad, trackpoint, volume incr/decr/mute, thinklight button and software switching, button display brightness control, special buttons, software led switching, suspend to ram in X (but not in console) (does it drain?), usb (keyboard & mouse tested on console and X), vga out, sound.|
|Currently not working:||vga/lcd switching in X (but you have dual-head), key press repetition on page left/page right buttons.|
|Not working out of the box:||X, sleep, special buttons.|
|Untested:||hibernate, pcmcia, dvd writer, bluetooth, irda, firewire, svideo out, modem, cpu frequency scaling, hardware encryption and random device.|
What I did
- Because I'm a coward, I made a Windows backup using the shipped tools. Press the abominable blue button under Win and make a backup on CD. The tool will not fill DVDs, but assume they're CDRs, so, unless I've overseen something, there's no point trying to burn DVDs. The tool used 7 CDRs and it took quite a while.
- I used a Debian 3.1 CD to install base system. In order to install X.org backports later (for the X600, I want to use the proprietary ATI drivers), I did not install Xfree.
- Ethernet is not auto-detected. Use tg3.
- Apart from / and swap, I'll have 45 GB /usr/local and 45 GB /home. I will encrypt /home later.
After installing Debian with a 2.6.x kernel, the system would
... ide0: I/O resource 0x1F0-0x1F7 not free. ide0: ports already in use, skipping probe ... Kernel panic: Attempt to kill init!I.e., do not install 2.6.x during initial installation.
- Since the above looks like a conflict similar to CD drive problems encountered with previous Thinkpads, I planned to use the newest kernel with the settings described in ThinkWiki.
- So I started over and used a 2.4.x kernel this time. This worked. I only installed a base system + security patches. A big package selection session will follow later. Some things were missing, so I installed some packages on the fly whenever anyone was complaining.
Download newest kernel (2.6.15), unpack (needs bzip2),
then configure (needs ncurses-dev).
- Check all the settings. Particularly:
- Disable SATA in IDE/ATAPI driver
- Enable SCSI SATA driver
- If you spot anything that contains 'IBM ThinkPad', consider activating it. :-)
make-kpkg --append-to-version ht1 --bzimage kernel_image cd .. dpkg -i kernel-image-2.6.15ht_1_386.debDo not boot 2.6.x now, since the hard disk will not be found -- it is accessed via the SCSI module by the newer kernel. I test-booted 2.4.x once more, to check that it works, then booted with 2.6.x, modifying command line from the boot prompt (press 'e' in grub, and edit the command line rewriting hda1 as sda1, then press 'b' to boot). The system then booted without panicking, but the fstab was still wrong and I got a maintenance prompt. I logged in as root, edited /etc/fstab replacing hda with sda, and continued booting. It worked. So I did one more boot test in 2.6.x, again manually editing the command line in grub, and since it worked again, I finally edited /boot/grub/menu.lst rewriting hda1 as sda1. I then rebooted into 2.6.x again and it worked.
- I checked that the kernel driver for IBM Thinkpads works. It seems to: I can switch on/off LEDs in /proc/acpi/ibm/led and also the light in /proc/acpi/ibm/light. (And it also switches when I press the corresponding FN+button).
XOrg Backport + ATI official fglrx driver
I downloaded the Xorg backport:
wget -m -np http://www.backports.org/debian/pool/main/x/xorg-x11/(I put it on our local mirror. Instead, you can go to the root of that server and read how to access the packages directly by using /etc/apt/sources.list.)
- To not automatically or accidentally install any more backports than needed, I put the downloaded directory on a local server and allowed apt full access to it. The above wget does not download all you need, however, some more backports are needed. I added www.backports.org to /etc/apt/sources.list, but gave it lower pin-priority (see backports.org for documentation). Then I added all packages that were required for smooth installation manually with full priority. FIXME: sources.list, preferences (list non-Xorg packages that require backport).
- Then, I installed the Xorg backport (6.9.0) (using aptitude) and also selected many, many packages manually, so this meant a longer package selection session to install much of the stuff I wanted (much is still missing).
I downloaded fglrx from ATI (see the ThinkWiki for a link) and
also a kernel 2.6.15 patch for it (it's only one line that
has to be changed, see below).
See the compilation instructions.
I used the Debian/sid package from the ATI
archive (Debian/sarge would not work since it required XFree, but I
have XOrg now). In the new version, the resulting .dev files
are called a bit differently:
fglrx-control-qt3_8.21.7-1_i386.deb fglrx-driver_8.21.7-1_i386.deb fglrx-driver-dev_8.21.7-1_i386.deb fglrx-kernel-src_8.21.7-1_i386.deb fglrx-sources_8.21.7-1_i386.debAfter the module-assistant prepare step, I patched the fglrx.tar.bz2 file that had appeared in /usr/src. I unpacked, edited one line (see below), and repacked the fglrx.tar.bz2 file. In modules/fglrx/firegl_public.c, I changed:
-#if 0 +#if LINUX_VERSION_CODE >= 0x02060f // WARNING WARNINIG WARNNING WARNNING WARNNING WARNNING WARNNING WARNNINGThen I continued compilation and installation of the driver. Whenever you compile a new kernel, you have to recompile the modules:
module-assistant prepare module-assistant update module-assistant a-i fglrxWithout this, Xorg uses a different driver (i.e, it seems to work anyway).
- X seems to work now and the system automatically booted into XDM. I tuned the config a bit:
I suggest you configure dual-head (or whatever you wish) with
aticonfig now to test the VGA out. It works without
an external monitor as well, so I did not change it anymore
aticonfig --initial=dual-headIn fact, I like this. It's a decent setup to have a 1680x1050 laptop screen plus a 1920x1200 24" LCD. :-)
Switching to text consoles from X does not work. Add this to /etc/X11/xorg.conf:
Section "ServerFlags" Option "XkbDisable" "true" EndSection
- The dpi setting is wrong: xdm invokes the X server to set the
resolution to 100dpi. This is wrong. I edited
-:0 local /usr/X11R6/bin/X vt7 -dpi 100 -nolisten tcp +:0 local /usr/X11R6/bin/X vt7 -nolisten tcpAfter this, the display resolution was still wrong : the external monitor has 94dpi, not 75 as set (although the monitor told the driver via DDC. Thus the driver is broken). So I did:
Section "Monitor" Identifier "aticonfig Monitor 1" DisplaySize 518 324 EndSectionI believed the driver to set the internal LCDs resolution to 129x126. I had expected 128x128, but it's close, so I hope it's correct. If you think 128x128 is correct, then use:
Section "Monitor" Identifier "aticonfig Monitor 0" DisplaySize 333 208 EndSection
xdm crashed after a session was reset. The computer was
alive and could be used and thus also rebooted remotely, but the
display was frozen in black (and X took 100% cpu). In contrast
to logging out, I found that killing xdm did not hurt the
display, though. So I simply told it to restart after session
reset and it worked, then. Edit /etc/X11/xdm/xdm-config
DisplayManager*terminateServer: trueI saw similar solutions posted for gdm and other display managers.
- Finally, my advice is to not use the radeon driver: I tried it for a whole day and it just could not properly talk to the external LCD panel: although the panel exactly told it the desired modeline (protocol in xorg.0.log), the driver just did not obey and programmed the card to produce signals outside the panel's tolerance (e.g. 43 Hz vert. refresh).
Encrypting swap, /tmp and /home
Trying to make cryptsetup work, I am missing a kernel option: the
device mapper. The CONFIG_* variables to adjust are:
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_DM=m CONFIG_DM_CRYPT=mAlternatively in menu config, it is under Device drivers/Multiple-device support. Enable Device mapper support and Crypt target support.
- I installed and encrypted the swap partition and /home. (See the documentation in /usr/share/doc/cryptosetup). This was very easy.
- I also wanted to encrypt /tmp. So I made a small partition of 3GB for it and made similar steps as for swap (substituting 'swap' with 'tmp' in /etc/crypttab). Unfortunately, the init scripts have a, well, bug: they do not make /tmp's root directory writable for everybody. After I installed the encrypted /tmp, no-one else but root could log in (in X)... And since it's reformatted at each boot, it does not help to adjust this once: it will be the same after each boot.
I did not want to modify the start scripts, though. So my cheap
patch was to create a new file /sbin/mount.ext2, which
is called every time an ext2 partition is mounted (which is
only /tmp in my system anyway -- the others use ext3), and to
enter the following lines:
#! /bin/sh if test "x$2" = "x/tmp"; then chmod 1777 /tmp fiWith this, it works.
- Oh, no, it didn't: at boot, there was not enough random to initialise two disks. So I used /dev/urandom instead of /dev/random in /etc/crypttab. I'll change this to /dev/hwrng as soon as I check out the crypto hardware.
- Note that version 6.9.0 of Xorg has a 'bug' wrt. acpi event handling: if acpid cannot be contacted, it directly accesses the ACPI event socket. If this happens, acpid cannot start afterwards since X has taken the device. This happened for me a few times and I don't exactly know why, since it would mean that acpid was not running, which it should. One thing that happens then is that the sleep button does not work. The only fix currently seems to be to ensure that acpid starts before X. (As I said: it should, but I still had problems). I have read that the X code is to be modified so that X only tries acpid, not the event socket directly, since that's the correct way of handling acpi events.
Sleep (Suspend to RAM)
Despite what I read in some (maybe older) docu, suspend to RAM worked
out of the box for me without unloading any module and under X in
the set-up described above. To test it, I typed:
echo mem > /sys/power/state
The machine quickly goes to sleep then (within ~3 seconds). To wake it up, press FN. To immediately shut it down, press POWER.
To automate the procedure, I added a new file /etc/acpi/events/sleepbtn:
event=button[ /]sleep action=/etc/acpi/sleepbtn.shMy new small script also locks the screen for the current X user.
#! /bin/sh XUSER=`who | grep ' :0' | cut -d ' ' -f 1` if test -n "$XUSER"; then # Either xlock: # su $XUSER -c "DISPLAY=:0 xlock -mode galaxy&" # Or XScreenSaver: su $XUSER -c "DISPLAY=:0 xscreensaver-command -lock" sleep 2 fi echo mem > /sys/power/statePlease see here for my current, slightly more complicated configuration.
- I tested the power dissipation: it's 500mW, so a full battery will take ~4 days to unload. I think 500mW is too much, maybe I'm leaking power (e.g. in the graphics chip). This will need more investigation. I suspect parts of the video hardware are still on, so I will manually set the hardware to VESA off before sleeping.
- When suspending from X, the text console is dead after wakeup. To reboot it correctly after resume, I now use vbetool. The sequence needed in the sleep script is interesting, but seems to work well. My current sleep script is here. (Thanks to Peter Weijmarshausen for suggesting vbetool!)
Without having had a wireless access, I did the following:
- In the kernel, use ipw2200 drivers and enable kernel fireware loader.
- Go to the ipw2200 project homepage, download the fireware (I downloaded 2.0, 2.1 and 2.2 (you never know...)) and install in /usr/local/lib/firmware.
When I then ran into an area with wlan, it just worked.
Frankly, I do not understand the concept of Debian's DHCP config on laptops. It's really a pain in the bottom to tell it to ask for Mother everytime it wakes up. Automatically switching the configuration, HTTP proxy inclusive, was, therefore, programmed manually by me. I will list the modifications in brief now.
- Use dhcpcd instead of dhcp-client. We want a daemon, not a boot-once, ask never solution.
The sleep script is slightly more complex now since I want to restart
DHCP after wake-up. The computer is most likely in a different network
#! /bin/sh dhcpcd-bin -k XUSER=`who | grep ' :0' | cut -d ' ' -f 1` if test -n "$XUSER"; then su $XUSER -c "DISPLAY=:0 xscreensaver-command -lock" fi sleep 1 killall dhcpcd-bin # just to be sure # Shut down video hardware: chvt 1 vbetool dpms off # Measure energy dissipation: (echo -n "BEGIN SLEEP: "; date ; cat /proc/acpi/battery/BAT0/state ) >> /var/log/sleep-dissipation.log # Sleep! echo mem > /sys/power/state # Measure energy dissipation: (echo -n "WAKEUP: "; date ; cat /proc/acpi/battery/BAT0/state ; echo "END") >> /var/log/sleep-dissipation.log # Reboot video hardware: vbetool post chvt 1 vbetool dpms on chvt 7 # To restart dhcpcd is quite disgusting since it keeps exiting for no # obvious reasons. Who would possibly want a DHCP client daemon to # exit?? If so, I kill it. dhcpcd-bin -n # Further, for more unknown reasons, dhcpcd does not seem to be able # to constantly watch in background whether a device gets access to # a DHCP server. Therefore, we try to brink the devices up now. ifup -a # Since this still does not work, keep on trying for a while: sleep 10 dhcpcd-bin -n sleep 10 dhcpcd-bin -n sleep 10 dhcpcd-bin -n sleep 10 dhcpcd-bin -n sleep 10 dhcpcd-bin -n sleep 10 dhcpcd-bin -nAnd since dhcpd-bin is absolutely not allowed to ever give up trying, I have a crontab entry:
0/2 * * * * /sbin/dhcpcd-bin -n &Any proposal for a cleaner (and working) solution would be appreciated.
I made a new directory for location switching: /etc/location.
It contains scripts and also subdirs for each config. Further,
there's a symbolic link 'current' that points to the directory that's active.
This link is updated when the IP address changes. Some system files
are links into the current directory, e.g. /etc/tinyproxy/tinyproxy.conf
/etc/location: drwxr-xr-x ... default drwxr-xr-x ... absint drwxr-xr-x ... home lrwxrwxrwx ... current -> absint -rwxr-xr-x ... get-ip-address.sh -rw-r--r-- ... interface.map -rwxr-xr-x ... interface-name.sh ... lrwxrwxrwx ... /etc/apt/sources.list -> ../location/current/sources.list /etc/tinyproxy: lrwxrwxrwx ... tinyproxy.conf -> /etc/location/current/tinyproxy.conf
My /etc/network/interfaces looks like this:
auto lo iface lo inet loopback auto eth0 auto eth1 auto eth2 mapping eth0 script /etc/location/interface-name.sh mapping eth1 script /etc/location/interface-name.sh mapping eth2 script /etc/location/interface-name.sh iface rj45 inet dhcp iface wlan inet dhcp #iface firewire inet dhcpThe mentioned script that finds the card name looks like this:
#! /bin/sh cat /etc/location/interface.map | /etc/network/get-mac-address.sh "$@"And this is the interface.map file. You need to adjust the MAC addresses for the devices of your machine:
XY:XY:XY:XY:XY:XY rj45 XY:XY:XY:XY:XY:XY wlanAnd the get-mac-address.sh is the unmodified version from the docu (see man page of ifup and interface) copied from /usr/share/doc/ifupdown/examples/get-mac-address.sh. Finally, I edited /etc/dhcpc/dhcpcd.exe to change some global settings, maintain the link /etc/location/current and restart some daemons when the address changes.
- For HTTP access, I use tinyproxy (for a direct web proxy) and privoxy (for a filtered web proxy) and I restart them with different config files when the IP addresse changes. My web browser always uses a local port as a proxy, so I can change the access proxy without changing the browser config by simply restarting tinyproxy.
|Network:||Broadcom 10/100/1000||tg3||out of the box (but no auto-detection)|
|Hard Disk:||2.6.x Kernel SCSI SATA driver (libsata)||download|
|Display:||1680x1050 ATI Radeon X600||Xorg + proprietary ATI driver (fglrx)||backport + download|
|Optical Drive:||DVD-Recordable 8x, EIDE||in distro|
|Audio:||Analog Devices AD1981HD||Intel HD Audio (snd_hda_intel)||in kernel|
|Wireless:||Intel 2915 a/b/g||ipw2200||needs fireware download from sourceforge project|
|USB:||out of the box|
|Firewire:||Thinkwiki: Ricoh R5C841||out of the box? (not checked, but drivers report success)|
|Cardbus:||Thinkwiki: Ricoh R5C841|
|Flash Card Reader:||Thinkwiki: Ricoh R5C841|
|Touchpad/Trackpoint:||Synaptics||ps2/psaux||out of the box|
|Bluetooth:||kernel Thinkpad driver||in kernel (but not yet checked)|