North Germanic Sound Shifts

Deutsch English

Proto-Germanic > Proto-Norse > Old Norse > Icelandic


This is my attempt to gather the North Germanic sound shifts that Icelandic underwent since Proto-Germanic via Proto-Norse and Old Norse (Old Icelandic). The goal was to have a complete and machine readable list of sound changes representing present day knowledge. This goal is surely not achieved yet, but I want to present my data anyway in the hope that errors will be found this way. So this is OpenSource. :-)

I have used various sources, but don't rely on the result to be precise. Most importantly, don't rely on the given years of the sound changes, as they mainly served the purpose of sorting the rules. I appreciate very much any proposals for improvement!

I have tested the sound shifts with many Proto-Germanic and Proto-Norse words. Quite a few failed to arrive at Modern Icelandic by using the regular rules. A few options have been added to account for sound shift variants. This either means that there was free variation or that the precise constraints for a sound shift are unknown (to me). For the majority of the words I tested, my tests worked quite well, I feel. I have included a list that was created by using the standard settings without variants changed.

The machine readable file also includes sections for running Latin words through the sound shifts. You may safely ignore these if you are only interested in the history North-Germanic sound shifts.

The sound shift file ist here.

And the Perl sound shift compiler for that file is here.


List of Applying the Sound Shifts

The blue entries are provided, either as input or as reference. All other entries in the table are derived from the input values (either Proto-Germanic or Proto-Norse). The reference is the Old-Norse stage, which is marked in either green if the expected result is derived, or in red, if there is a different prediction.

Another problem was that my sources were contradictory. So some expected ON entries might be wrong. (faihiDo: > fa:Da? / feigD? (an input of 'faigiDo:' results is 'feigD'))

PGPNON(pred.)ON(ref.)IS(orth.)IS(pron.)
ɣastīzɣastīʀɟestirɟestirgestir[cestɪr]
ɣastizɣastiʀɟestrɟestrgestur[cestʏr]
þliuhanþliuhanflȳjaflȳjaflýja[fli:ja]
þrahilazþrahilaʀþrællþrællþræll[θra͡itɬ]
þranhazþrāhaʀþrārþrārþrár[θra͡u:r]
þriznazþreʀnaʀþreðrþrennr
þuŋkjanþuŋkjanþyccaþyccaþykkja[θɪhca]
þurznōnþorʀnanþornaþornaþorna[θotna]
ahazahaʀārahs
ailiðazailiðaʀeiliðreldr
airairārārár[a͡u:r]
airuzairuʀǭrrǭrrárr[a͡u:r̥]
alβutalβutǭltǭlt (ǭlft)álpt[a͡uɬt]
aljō-aljō-elja-elja-elja-[elja-]
angelluzangilluʀeɲɟilleɲɟillengill[e͡iɲcɪtɬ]
anhulazāhulaʀǭllǭlláll[a͡utɬ]
aznōaʀnōǫnnǫnnönn[øn]
balluzballuʀbǫllrbǫllrböllur[pøtlʏr]
beβorazbjōraʀbjōrrbjōrrbjórr[pjo͡u:r̥]
berniuberniubirnibirnibirni[pɪtnɪ]
bernōzbernōʀbjarnarbjarnarbjarnar[pjatnar]
bernubernubjǫrnbjǫrnbjörn[pjøtn̥]
blæsanblāsanblāsablāsablása[pla͡u:sa]
blæwanōnblānanblānablānablána[pla͡u:na]
blæwazblāʀblærblār
blæwengazblāingaʀbleiŋgrblæiŋgr
bōwizbōwiʀbœrbœrbær[pa͡i:r]
brugjō-bruggjō-bryɟɟa-bryɟɟa-bryggja-[prɪca-]
būwizbūwiʀbȳrbȳrbýr[pi:r]
djaβuldjaβuldjǫvuldjǫvuldjöful[tjø:vʏl]
dōmjandōmiandœmadœmadæma[ta͡i:ma]
dūβō-dūβō-dūva-dūva-dúfa-[tu:a-]
duhtērduhtērdōttirdōttirdóttir[to͡uhtɪr]
dwōliskazdwōliskaʀdœliskrdœlskr
elgazelgaʀelgrelgrelgur[elkʏr]
falhuzfalhuʀfǫlrfalr
fanɣizfanɣiʀfeŋgrfeŋgrfengur[fe͡iŋkʏr]
farinazfarinaʀfarinnfarinnfarinn[fa:rɪn]
faznjanfaʀnianfennafennafenna[fena]
felhanfelhanfelafelafela[fe:la]
ferðiuferðiufirðifirðifirði[fɪrðɪ]
ferðuʀferðuʀfjǫrðrfjǫrðrfjörður[fjørðʏr]
fliuɣizfliuɣiʀflȳgrflȳgrflýgur[fli:ɣʏr]
fūljō-fūliō-fȳla-fȳla-fýla-[fi:la-]
fulaþlafolaþlafolaldfolaldfolald[fo:lalt]
fulljanfullianfyllafyllafylla[fɪtla]
geljōngeljanɟiljaɟiljagilja[cɪlja]
haβukazhaukaʀhaukrhaukrhaukur[hø͡i:kʏr]
haitinazhaitinaʀheitinnheitinnheitinn[he͡i:tɪn]
hamarazhamaraʀhamarrhamarrhamarr[ha:mar̥]
hamarōzhamarōʀhamrarhamrarhamrar[hamrar]
hanhistazhāhistaʀhæstrhestr
hauzjanhauʀianheyraheyraheyra[he͡i:ra]
hawwahaggwahǫgghǫgghögg[høk]
hawwanhaggwanhǫggwahǫggwahöggva[høkva]
hawwizhaggwiʀhøggrhøggrhöggur[høkʏr]
heminazheminaʀhiminnhiminnhiminn[hɪ:mɪn]
herðjazherðiaʀhirðirhirðirhirðir[hɪrðɪr]
herðjōzherðiōʀhirðarhirðarhirðar[hɪrðar]
hernahernahjarnhjarnhjarn[çatn̥]
hertō-hertō-hjarta-hjarta-hjarta-[çar̥ta-]
hlaupjanhlaupianhleypahleypahleypa[ɬe͡i:pa]
hrahilazhrahilaʀhrællhrællhræll[r̥a͡itɬ]
hraznōhraʀnōhrǫnnhrǫnnhrönn[r̥øn]
hugjanhuggjanhyɟɟahyɟɟahyggja[hɪca]
hwōtjanhwōtianhœtahœtahæta[ha͡i:ta]
jærajāraārārár[a͡u:r]
katilazkatilaʀcetillcetillketill[cʰe:tɪtɬ]
katilōzkatilōʀkatlarkatlarkatlar[kʰahtɬar]
kattiukattiucetticettiketti[cʰehtɪ]
kattōzkattōʀkattarkattarkattar[kʰahtar]
kattuzkattuʀkǫttrkǫttrköttur[kʰøhtʏr]
klæwuklāuklōklōkló[kɬo͡u:]
lātanlātanlātalātaláta[la͡u:ta]
lātizlātiʀlætrlætrlætur[la͡i:tʏr]
lahsazlahsaʀlāslahs
laihwenjanlaihwinianlānalānalána[la͡u:na]
legjanleggjanliɟɟaliɟɟaliggja[lɪca]
maþlmaþlmālmālmál[ma͡u:l]
malhōmalhōmǫlmǫlmöl[mø:l]
maujōzmaujōʀmeyjarmeyjarmeyjar[me͡i:jar]
meðjazmeðjaʀmiðrmiðrmiður[mɪ:ðʏr]
meðwazmeðwaʀmjǫðrmjǫðrmjöður[mjø:ðʏr]
mekumekumjǫkmjǫkmjök[mjø:k]
melðunjazmelðuniaʀmjǫlnirmjǫlnirmjölnir[mjølnɪr]
melhazmelhaʀmelrmelrmelur[me:lʏr]
melhtazmelhtaʀmjaltrmjaltrmjaltur[mjaɬtʏr]
miðiliumiðiliumillimillimilli[mɪtlɪ]
mūsizmūsiʀmȳssmȳssmýss[mis]
nahtunahtunōttnōttnótt[no͡uht]
niðjazniðjaʀniðrniðrniður[nɪ:ðʏr]
niðjōzniðjōʀniðjarniðjarniðjar[nɪðjar]
nurþaznorþaʀnorðrnorðrnorður[norðʏr]
raihuraihurǭrǭ[ra͡u:]
salhjōnsalhiansalaselja
skrahiþōnskrahiþanskræðaskræðaskræða[skra͡i:ða]
skunjaskunjascynscynskyn[scɪ:n]
skunjō-skunjō-scynja-scynja-skynja-[scɪnja-]
slaɣinazslaɣinaʀsleɟinnsleɟinnsleginn[sle͡i:jɪn]
slōɣumslōɣumslōgumslōgumslógum[slo͡u:ɣʏm]
standanstandanstandastandastanda[stanta]
sunþazsunþaʀsuðrsuðrsuður[sʏ:ðʏr]
swalljanswallianswellaswellasvella[svetla]
swelhjanswelhianswelasȳla
swesterswesterswestirsystir
swōrjanswōriansœrasœrasæra[sa͡i:ra]
swullazswollaʀsollrsollrsollur[sotlʏr]
tiuztiuʀtȳrtȳrtýr[tʰi:r]
taihwōntaihwantātā[tʰa͡u:]
takinaztakinaʀtecinntecinntekinn[tʰe:cɪn]
weniʀweniʀvinrvinrvinur[vɪ:nʏr]
werðjanwerðianvirðavirðavirða[vɪrða]
wulfazwolfaʀōlvrūlvr
wulmazwolmaʀōlmrolmr
wunskaunskaōskōskósk[o͡usk]
wunskjanunskianœskaœskja
wurðaworðaorðorðorð[orð]
wurmazwormaʀormrormrormur[ormʏr]
ɣamalugǫmulgǫmulgömul[kø:mʏl]
ɣarwiangǫrwagǫrwagörva[kørva]
ɣlaðiðō-gladda-gladda-gladda-[klata-]
ɣulþagullgullgull[kʏtɬ]
þeoðaþjōðþjōðþjóð[θjo͡u:ð]
þeuðō-þjōða-þjōða-þjóða-[θjo͡u:ða-]
þrawijanþreyjaþreyjaþreyja[θre͡i:ja]
ahtauāttaāttaátta[a͡uhta]
aiwaeyeyey[e͡i:]
anþaraʀannarrannarrannarr[anar̥]
berɣabjargbjargbjarg[pjark]
berɣubjǫrgbjǫrgbjörg[pjørk]
bindumbindumbindumbindum[pɪntʏm]
fēhūsfjōsfjōsfjós[fjo͡u:s]
finþanfinnafinnafinna[fɪna]
flauhflōflōfló[flo͡u:]
gansgāsgāsgás[ka͡u:s]
glaʀaglerglergler[kle:r]
haitēheitiheitiheiti[he͡i:tɪ]
haukaʀhaukrhaukrhaukur[hø͡i:kʏr]
kallankallakallakalla[kʰatla]
keusancōsacōsakjósa[cʰo͡u:sa]
koʀenaʀkørinnkørinnkörinn[kʰø:rɪn]
komiʀkømrkømrkömur[kʰø:mʏr]
kūʀcȳrcȳrkýr[cʰi:r]
kunicyncynkyn[cʰɪ:n]
kwāðiakwæðikwæðikvæði[kʰva͡i:ðɪ]
leuganljūgaljūgaljúga[lju:ɣa]
mahmāmā[ma͡u:]
melwamjǫlmjǫlmjöl[mjø:l]
saiwaʀsærsærsær[sa͡i:r]
siŋkwansøkkwasøkkwasökkva[søhkva]
skelduʀscǫldrscǫldrskjöldur[scøltʏr]
slahanslāslāslá[sla͡u:]
staðistaðstaðstað[sta:ð]
staihstēstēsté[stje:]
suhtisōttsōttsótt[so͡uht]
tiuʀtȳrtȳrtýr[tʰi:r]
taliðō-talda-talda-talda-[tʰalta-]
trewutrjōtrjōtrjó[trjo͡u:]
wihavēvē[vje:]
wihtuʀvēttrvēttrvéttur[vjehtʏr]
wināʀvinarvinarvinar[vɪ:nar]
wintraʀvetrvetrvetur[ve:tʏr]

Index

July 17th, 2006
Comments? Suggestions? Corrections? You can drop me a line.
zpentrabvagiktu@theiling.de
Schwerpunktpraxis